1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Business center or company is not merely a work place in an office, but in addition to that it is a social environment. Business activities in this aforementioned places embraces human relations which in turn involve individual and group behaivour and these attitudes emanate from different natural instincts and circumstances affecting us as individual or as a group. In any organization, the effectives and overall efficiency depends on the people in the organization. It then follows that the sole aim of the study of behavior in an organization is to observe, analyze and see how incentives influences people’s at work. In carrying out this task, we ought to know what people do why they do it and how they are doing it to reach the desired goal. In working condition, two pivotal questions seem to be on one’s mind: what causes people to do the things they do? And how their performance can be improved substantially?
According to Thorndike; we tend to respect those actions which attract satisfaction and reward and avoid those ones which brings reprisal and punishment (Zimbardo and Ruch 1997). The theory tagged “The imperial law of effects states that any act which in a given situation produces satisfaction, tends to be associated with that situation, so that when the situation re occurs, the act is more likely than ever before to reoccur again; conversely, any act which in a given situation produces discomfort becomes disassociated from that situation so that when the situation reoccurs, the act is less likely than before to reoccur again from practical point of view; Thorndike’s observation is still valid. Most people tend to see reward and avoid punishment in most of their activities.
On the same line of reasoning, skinner noted that “animals learn to associate potential rewards with certain activities and strife to achieve reward CPM Film 1975”; if there is no reinforcement for behaviors, skinner maintained, it will gradually disappear, for example; Emery air freight (USA) developed a system that provided feedback to employees on their job performance. Workers could then measure their own improvement and success. Management reinforced the changes with praise and recognition.
The programme has produced significant cost saving and improved quality; lowered absenteeism and raised employee’s hope and moral. In any organization, both the managers and employees in a were environment frequently discover that they have different priorities and areas of primary interests. It has also been observed that managers tend to think mainly towards achieving the organizational goals; the overall effectiveness and efficiency of services and profit while non management staffs or employees are more concerned with personal or human values like good pay packet, fair treatment, security of job and opportunity for advancement etc.
Managers in trying to achieve the organization goal have to work with people in the organization to achieve these goals. It is an established fact that people have always worked for the benefit derivable from such work. However, according to Akpala (1990) “pay is only one element of work”. Employees have complex needs that are not only influenced by their immediate managers but also by other employees and the type of work they are assigned and the organizations to which they belong.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In an organization, there exists a policy on human relations. These are also officers who handle such human relations issues for the organization. The problem is that is has not yet been know whether business institutions often have good or solid policies on human relations that affects both their staff and their customers. The researcher does not know the impact these policies have on the secretaries in these organizations. Equally, the secretaries continually wonder whether sound human relation policies have any impact on them. consequently if it has, they have never know the impact whether positive or negative. Therefore, this study sought out human relations policies available in Emenite Plc and Amah Breweries Limited Ngwo. The study also sought out he effect while there policies have on the productivity of secretaries serving in there companies.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to
1. Find out whether there are human relations policies in EMENITE PLC and AMAH BREWERIES LIMITED NGWO.
2. Find out what these policies are
3. Find if these policies affect secretaries.
4. Find out whether these policies have impact on secretaries performance.
5. Find out if these companies entertain difficulties in maintaining these policies.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be useful to business organization in Nigeria, in determining how to maintain sound human relation policies that would increase the morals of their workers. It will also enable them to know where to adjust and to adopt standard and documented human relations policies that would help to achieve effectiveness and efficiency. The study will also be beneficial to secretaries as it will enhance their knowledge and to be aware of what is expected of them form their employees. The study will of human relations as it will give hem more knowledge on the nature of human relations policies. The study will also be a reference point in solving human relations problem.
1.5 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
It is assumed that in an organization where people come together to work and produce, there must exist human elations policies which may either not document. Therefore we assume that EMENITE PLC and AMAH BREWERIES NGWO and THE EFFECTS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECRETARIES have human relations policies. We assume that good human relations policies help to achieve the organizational goals and improved efficiency and effectiveness at work. The researcher assumes that if human relations policies in EMENITE PLAC and AMAH BREWERIES NGWO and THE EFFECTS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECRETARIES are such that motivates workers adequately, secretaries morale maybe raised. It is also hoped that increased morale would result to increase output of workers.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) How many policies do EMENITE PLC and AMAH BREWERIES NGWO and THE EFFECTS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECRETARIES make for human relations?
2) Which of these policies influences the performance of secretaries?
3) What are these human relations policies?
4) What are the best human relation policies that can adequately motivate secretarial staff?
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
IMPACT: The word “impact” according to as Hornby (1980) has a strong impression or effect. The impact of human relations policies on the secretaries means the effect of these policies in the performance of secretaries impact therefore can be negative or positive.
HUMAN RELATIONS: This is the dealing, affairs that has to do with one person or group of persons. It is an invaluable link between the management and the workers. Since on man is an island. There is need for people to interact for their mutual well-being.
POLICIES: Policies are defined as the guidelines to managerial actions. Dale Yoder (1972) ahs described policy as the standing line for all managerial relationship with employees. It can also be regarded as a predetermined, selected course as a guideline towards accepted aims and objectives.
SECRETARY: According to the National Secretaries Association (International), a secretary is an executive assistant who possesses a mastery of skills, who demonstrates the ability to assume responsibility without supervision, who exercises initiatives and judgments and who makes decision within the scope of assigned authority.
1.8 IMPLICATION FOR THE STUDY
A study of human relations policies available in Emenite and Amah Breweries Ngwo, shall have obvious implications for business organizations to build up sound human relations policies to motivate their employees for greater productivity. Concerning the two companies used for these study sound human relations policies, if it’s exist in these companies we imply that the employees shall be happy with the condition of services offered to them. The condition of services maximum output of work. However, if there is no healthy human relations policies in these companies the employees will not be happy with the condition of services and effect shall also be how productivity; and effect shall also have obvious implications to business organization in Nigeria to maintain sound motivational; if their companies are to survive and grow.