EDUCATING THE GIRL CHILD IN A POLYGAMOUS FAMILY IN NIGERIA
The purpose of this study is to attempt to find the role polygamous play in the performance of a child especially the girl child. This question has raised other questions for varying reasons. And scholars in education and psychology have attempted to proffer a solution in this regard which would lead to good performance of the child educationally. To help solve this question some statement were drawn up such as: (1) in a polygamous home educa5ion of the girl child is not often given top priority. (2) Having many children in a polygamous home affects the educational prospect of the girl child. (3) in polygamous homes parental motivation and supervision are lacking the methodology of this study shows statistics comprehension of the research based on the data collected. Data collected were analyzed with the instrument of a percentage. The last chapter is a summary of the work conclusion and recommendations of the project. From the findings, some recommendations were made such as; (1) it is recommended that people should be practicing monogamy. Even if polygamous is to be practiced. It should be for the wealth group who has the needed recourse to career for the well-being of individual family. (2) on the part of the government, the public should be enlightened at regular intervals on how to live happily in a family. Government should also make people to be aware of the implication of polygamous system of marriage.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the context of human society, a family (from latin word familia) is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage) or co-residence and/or shared consumption (see nurture kinship). Members of the immediate family includes, spouses, parents, brothers, sisters, sons and/or daughters. Members of the extended family may include grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephews, nieces and/or siblings-in-law. In most societies, the family is the principal institution for the socialization of children. As the basic unit for raising children anthropologists generally classify most family organization as multifocal (a mother and her children); conjugal (a husband, his wife, and children also called nuclear family) a avuncular (for example, a grandparents, a brother, his sister and her children) or extended parents and children co-reside with other members of one parents family. Sexual relations among the members are regulated by rules concerning incest such as the incest taboo.
Family is used metaphorically to create more inclusive categories such as community nationhood, global village and humanism. Generally is a field which aims to trace family lineages through history. Family is also an important economic unit studied in family economic. One of the primary functions of the family involves providing a framework for the production and reproduction of persons, biologically and/or socially. This can occur through the sharing of materials/substances (such as food), the giving and receiving of care and nurture (nurture kinship) jural rights and obligation and moral and sentimental ties. Thus ones experience of ones family shifts over time. From the perspective of children, the family is a “family of orientation”. The family serves to locate children socially and plays a major role in their enculturation and socialization. From the point of view of the parents(s) the family is a family of procreation, the goal of which is to produce and enculturation and socialize children. However, producing children is not the only function of the family in societies with a sexual division of labor, marriage, and the resulting relationship between two people, it is necessary for the formation of an economically productive household.
Christopher Harris notes that the western conception of family is ambiguous, and confused with the household, as revealed in the different contexts in which the word is used and so many. There are different types of family units which are monoigamo8us and polygamous are inclusive. Monogamous family is based on legal or social monogamy. In this case, an individual has only one (official) partner during their life’s time or at any one time (serial monogamy). This means that a person may not have several different legal spouses at the same time, as this is usually prohibited by bigamy laws, in jurisdictions that require monogamous marriages.
Polygamous family unit is a marriage that includes more than two partners when a man is married to more than one wife at a time, the relationship is called polygamy, and when woman is married to more than one husband at a time, it is called polyandry. If a marriage includes multiple husband and wives, it can be called polygamy, group or conjoint marriage. The effect of this marriage on the girl child is what the researcher is basing her research. This type of marriage is preferred in Nigeria, particularly, Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
Polygamy is the type of marriage system practiced in t he traditional Africa society whereby a man takes more than one wife at the same time. It is practiced because of the prestige it accorded a man, in the society in which he lives. Religiously, most religion encouraged the practice of marrying more than one wife for instance in slam you are encouraged to marry as many wives as you can, depending on your purchasing power.
1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Oredo local government area is situated in the middle region of Edo state, politically Oredo is divided into nine villages or clans and has produced a lot of political figures in the state and the country in general, and Benin City is the administrative headquarter of Oredo local government area. The dwellers are the original producer of staple food such as cassava maize, yam, cocoa, etc. the Oba of Benin Omo Noba Nedo Uku Akpolokpolo Oba Erediauwa, Chief Sam igbe who is the Iyase of Benin Kingdom Late Chief Engineer Ima Igiehon, who was the Obayhayomwn of Benin Kingdom, Chief Gabriel Osawaru Igbinedion the Esama of Benin Kingdom , Prince Adun Akanzua and many other prominent princes and chiefs. It has an area of 249km2 and a population of 374, 671 at the 2006 census. The postal code of the area is 300.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In every societies of the world there are some specific structure designated to meet the immediate nee3d of the society consequent upon this is Oredo settlement she has a robust nature of socialization which clearly defines the role of both sexes (male and female). Over the years position of women in Nigeria societies, especially in Oredo, has not be given a serious concern. The girl child’s education has not be given the priority attention especially in the polygamous family. She contributes to languish in social inequality (such as education) and relegated to the background. The resultant effect of this lack of fortune, the girl child is not given adequate attention she is retorted to both growth and development; this is as a result of the unhealthy waling that existed in polygamous family there are always constant quarrels, hatred, disunity, hostility as well as diabolism. Another striking effect inherent in weak or mismanagement of polygamous family is the audience of a broken home.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of polygamous family unit on the child education in Oredo local government area. To highlight the factors which gave rise to polygamous family unit, to offer suggestion that will bring about lasting solution to this menace and eventual happiness to both men and women, to educate parents on the need for educating the girl child.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of the study will be of immense benefit to the following: the married women because they are majority involved in this type of marriage the opinion of the parents about the education of girl in a polygamous family unit in Oredo local government area of Edo state the findings of the re3search will be carefully analyzed and interpreted through the data collected and solution will be provided to a given problems.
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to achieve the objective of the study of the following questions were raised to know whether or not they affect the att6itude of polygamous parents on the education of girls.
i. Why do men involve in polygamous?
ii. What are the effects of this type of marriage on a girl child?
iii. How will people avoid the negative effect posed by such marriage?
iv. What happens to such family when the man dies?
v. Do you think educated parent will indulge themselves in polygamous?
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
EDUCATION: Is the totality of processes through which an individual acquires knowledge, skills, attitude and abilities which enable him or her to positively contribute towards the meaningful development of the society. Encyclopedia American a defined Education as a design to affirmatively assist individual to develop their skills or potentials and to lead a productive and satisfying lives culturally, education is the process whereby society preserves and perpetuates its social valves and institutions. It is the means by which the collective wisdom of the past is transmitted to each new generation.
GIRL CHILD: A young woman, the female child of human specie.
POLYGAMOUS: This is the institution that permits the marrying of more than one wife or husband. It can either be polygamous, systematic polygamy is a situation in which a man marries a woman divorce her marries another, divorce her adifinitum. While polyandry is a process whereby a woman get married to more than one husband.
FAMILY: Family is seen as a subset of an individual total Kinsley network and a key unit of the household or domestic economy, a symbol of social cohesion and moral philosophy.